ISO 22000 is an international standard that defines the requirements of a food safety management system covering all organizations in the food chain from “farm to fork”.
What are the benefits of ISO 22000?
- Introduce internationally recognized processes to your business
- Give suppliers and stakeholders confidence in your hazard controls
- Put these hazard controls in place across your supply chain
- Introduce transparency around accountability and responsibilities
- Continually improve and update your systems so it stays effective
- ISO 22000 contains the food safety management system requirements of FSSC 22000 (which is a Global Food Safety Initiative, GFSI recognised scheme) and is used along with requirements for prerequisite programs for the appropriate industry sector
The ISO 22000 family of International Standards addresses food safety management.
The consequences of unsafe food can be serious and ISO’s food safety management standards help organizations identify and control food safety hazards. As many of today’s food products repeatedly cross national boundaries, International Standards are needed to ensure the safety of the global food supply chain.
ISO 22000:2005 sets out the requirements for a food safety management system and can be certified to. It maps out what an organization needs to do to demonstrate its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe. It can be used by any organization regardless of its size or position in the food chain.
Who is this standard for?
It can be used by all organizations in the food chain, regardless of size or complexity. This includes:
- Harvesters of wild plants or animals
- Animal food producers
- Producers of ingredients
- Food manufacturers
- Organizations providing cleaning and sanitation services
- Transportation, storage and distribution services
- Food service outlets
- Suppliers of equipment
- Suppliers of cleaning and disinfectants
- Suppliers of packaging and other food contact materials
- Certification bodies
Why should companies use ISO 22000 standard?
- It specifies generic requirements so that organizations in the food chain can:
- Plan, implement, operate, maintain and update a food safety management system aimed at providing products that, according to their intended use, are safe for consumers
- Demonstrate compliance with applicable statutory/regulatory food safety requirements
- Evaluate and assess food safety customer requirements and demonstrate conformity with those mutually agreed customer requirements that relate to food safety
- Effectively communicate food safety issues to interested parties within the food chain
- Conform to a stated food safety policy and demonstrate conformity to relevant interested parties
- Seek certification or registration of a food safety management system by an external organization, or make a self-assessment or self-declaration of conformity to this document
What’s changed in the new 2018 version of the standard?
The standard hasn’t been updated since it was first published in 2005. This substantial revision introduces ISO’s new High Level Structure, making it compatible with the other ISO management systems standards such as ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.
In addition, the revised standard:
- Clarifies the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle so organizations can ensure their processes are adequately resourced and managed and that opportunities for improvement are acted on. The revision adopts two inter-related PDCA cycles, the food safety management system and the product production/service delivery PDCA based around the Codex HACCP principles.
- Adopts a different approach to understanding business/organizational risk and opportunities associated with the food chain sector. The revision enables organizations to put in place controls to take advantage of opportunities and minimize adverse effects as well as apply the risk concept at organizational as well as at operational level through HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)
- Improves the operational requirements structure which is reconfigured as: Operational Planning and Control; Hazard Control and Control Plans; and Updating of Controls
ISO 22000 standard
- The ISO 22000 international standard specifies the requirements for a food safety management system that involves the following elements:
- interactive communication
- system management
- prerequisite programs
- HACCP principles
- Critical reviews of the above elements have been conducted by many scientists. Communication along the food chain is essential to ensure that all relevant food safety hazards are identified and adequately controlled at each step within the food chain. This implies communication between organizations both upstream and downstream in the food chain. Communication with customers and suppliers about identified hazards and control measures will assist in clarifying customer and supplier requirements.
- Recognition of the organization’s role and position within the food chain is essential to ensure effective interactive communication throughout the chain in order to deliver safe food products to the final consumer.
- The most effective food safety systems are established, operated and updated within the framework of a structured management system and incorporated into the overall management activities of the organization. This provides maximum benefit for the organization and interested parties. ISO 22000 has been aligned with ISO 9001 in order to enhance the compatibility of the two standards.
- ISO 22000 can be applied independently of other management system standards or integrated with existing management system requirements.
- ISO 22000 integrates the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and application steps developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. By means of auditable requirements, it combines the HACCP plan with prerequisite programs. Hazard analysis is the key to an effective food safety management system, since conducting a hazard analysis assists in organizing the knowledge required to establish an effective combination of control measures. ISO 22000 requires that all hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur in the food chain, including hazards that may be associated with the type of process and facilities used, are identified and assessed. Thus it provides the means to determine and document why certain identified hazards need to be controlled by a particular organization and why others need not.
- During hazard analysis, the organization determines the strategy to be used to ensure hazard control by combining the prerequisite programs and the HACCP plan.
- ISO is developing additional standards that are related to ISO 22000. These standards will be known as the ISO 22000 family of standards. At the present time, the following standards will make up the ISO 22000 family of standards:
- ISO 22000 – Food safety management systems – Requirements for any organization in the food chain.
- ISO 22001 – Guidelines on the application of ISO 9001:2000 for the food and drink industry (replaces: ISO 15161:2001).
- ISO/TS 22002- Prerequisite programmes on food safety—Part 1: Food manufacturing; Part 2: Catering; Part 3: Farming; Part 4: Food packaging manufacturing; Part 6: Feed and animal food production
- ISO TS 22003 – Food safety management systems for bodies providing audit and certification of food safety management systems.
- ISO TS 22004 – Food safety management systems – Guidance on the application of ISO 22000:2005.
- ISO 22005 – Traceability in the feed and food chain – General principles and basic requirements for system design and implementation.
- ISO 22006 – Quality management systems – Guidance on the application of ISO 9002:2000 for crop production.
- ISO 22000 is also used as a basis for the Food Safety Systems Certification (FSSC) Scheme FSSC 22000. FSSC 22000 is a Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) approved scheme.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness. The occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illnesses resulting from the ingestion of a common food is known as a Food-borne disease outbreak. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potential health hazards. In this way food safety often overlaps with food defense to prevent harm to consumers. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, as well as policies on biotechnology and food and guidelines for the management of governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods. In considering market to consumer practices, the usual thought is that food ought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer.
Food can transmit pathogens which can result in the illness or death or death of the person or other animals. The main mediums are bacteria, viruses, mold, and fungus (which is Latin for mushroom). It can also serve as a growth and reproductive medium for pathogens. In developed countries there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries there are less standards and enforcement of those standards. Another main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item in the spreading of diseases. In theory, food poisoning is 100% preventable. However this cannot be achieved due to the number of persons involved in the supply chain, as well as the fact that pathogens can be introduced into foods no matter how many precautions are taken. The five key principles of food hygiene, according to WHO, are:
- Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests.
- Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods.
- Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens.
- Store food at the proper temperature.